“Kolomenskoye” park - one of the most popular parks in Moscow, beloved by Muscovites and guests of the capital. In Kolomenskoe almost everyone will find something they like. Here you can find a lot of museums, have a river boat ride, and those who love peace and silence, can stroll through the many apple orchards or go down in the famous ravine. In general, in the park “Kolomenskoye” everyone will find something interesting to do. If you want to relax with the whole family, this is a wonderful place that is located almost in the center of Moscow. We also recently visited this park to see the architectural, archaeological and nature attractions of the park “Kolomenskoe”.
- 1 Kolomenskoye Park: how to reach
- 2 Kolomenskoye Park: schedule, map of the park, tickets pricing, official website
- 3 Routes through the open air museum-reserve “Kolomenskoe”
- 4 Deakovo settlement. “Dyakovskaya” ravine.
- 5 Church of the Ascension in Kolomenskoye
- 6 Church of St. George in Kolomenskoye
- 7 The Church of the Beheading of John the Baptist in Dyakovo
- 8 Kolomenskoye palace of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich
- 9 Sovereign's yard in Kolomenskoe
- 10 Church of the Kazan Icon of the Mother of God in Kolomenskoye
- 11 Gardens in Kolomenskoye Park
- 12 Catherine and Alexander Palace in Kolomenskoe open air Museum
- 13 Museum of Wooden Architecture in Kolomenskoye Park
- 13.1 Mokhovaya Tower of Sumy jail
- 13.2 Gate tower of St. Nicholas Monastery Korelskogo
- 13.3 Tower of Brotherly jail
- 13.4 The Church of St. George in Kolomenskoye open air museum
- 13.5 Cabin of Peter The Great in Kolomenskoye
- 13.6 A copy of the Dutch house of Peter The Great
- 13.7 Watermill and Falcon yard
- 13.8 Borisov stone and Polovtsian women
- 14 Conclusion
- 15 Kolomenskoye estate open air museum on the map
Kolomenskoye Park: how to reach
The easiest and most convenient way to get to the park “Kolomenskoye” is to use the subway (metro). Park is located near two different subway stations - “Kolomenskaya” and “Kashirskaya”, and which one to choose depends on what part of the park you want to initially get into.
Subway station “Kolomenskaya”
Near “Kolomenskaya” metro station is two entrances to the park, in our scheme they are numbered as 1 and 2. The first is on the Novinki Street, which close to ethnographic museum “Kolomenskoye”, museum of wooden architecture, new orchard, playground amusement, an exhibition of sand sculptures, wooden church of St. George, and it is convenient to get to the pier “Kolomenskoye”. A second entrance located on Andropov Avenue, and hence is close to Kazan apple orchard, Sovereign fodder yard, church of Kazan icon of the Mother of God and the famous church of the Ascension in Kolomenskoye. In general, it is the central and most visited part of the park, and when someone talk about the park, often have in mind this particular part of it.
Subway station “Kashirskaya”
Close to the subway station “Kashirskaya” there are also two entrances to the park. From the entrance number one you will have easy access to the restored wooden palace of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, and the second entrance is closest to one of the most famous archaeological sites in Moscow - “Deakovo settlement”.
How to get here by car, where to park your car
Museum-Reserve “Kolomenskoye” is located at Andropov Avenue, Building 39, and stretched between two subway stations “Kolomenskaya” and “Kashirskaya”. All entrances are equipped with parking, but on the weekend is not so easy to park - place is very popular. Apart from these, there are large car parking on Novinki Street and Kashirskoye Highway. On weekdays parking problems are much smaller, so, if possible, plan your visit to the park for mid-week. What transport to use is up to you, but personally we would not have ventured on a weekend to go there by car. 🙂
Kolomenskoye Park: schedule, map of the park, tickets pricing, official website
All the museum-reserve and exhibition projects are open to visitors every day except Monday from 10am to 6pm, ticket counters works from 9:45am to 5:30pm. Tickets can be purchased in traditional offices, which are located close to all the exhibits, and from the ticket vending machines.
Schedule of tours and excursions at the “Kolomenskoye” park can be found on its official website. Prices for services are different, and tickets for the exhibition start at 30 rubles ($0.8). In addition, there is a “single ticket”, which allows you to visit almost everything, except those which are paid separately (mostly temporary exhibitions). As we have said, the area of the park is quite huge and to understand its scope, just look at the photo, which shows a map of the Museum-Reserve “Kolomenskoye”.
At the official website of the museum “Kolomenskoye” you can find a lot of useful information about tours, exhibitions and events that are held in the park. For example, there are always published a detailed plan of actions on the “Day of Moscow” celebration.
Routes through the open air museum-reserve “Kolomenskoe”
There are many trails in the park Kolomenskoye and the most “right” of them is to go where you want without being guided by the friend’s advice or tour guides. Kolomenskoye has such a rich history that almost every step awaits any “attraction”. If you don’t like to walk alone, and want to learn something interesting about this place, we recommend you to find a personal tour with a certified guide on excursopedia.com.
In this article we will try to tell you about the most important attractions in Kolomenskoye in order of how they appeared on the territory of the modern park. And, of course, do not leaving aside the most important and famous of them - the Church of the Ascension in Kolomenskoye and recreated wooden palace of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich.
Deakovo settlement. “Dyakovskaya” ravine.
According to historical documents and archaeological excavations, Kolomenskoye - one of the first places in Moscow where people began to settle. If to believe the archeological finds in the park and its surroundings, the first inhabitants appeared on the banks of the Moskva River in the VIII century BC. That “Deakovo settlement” located on the reserve given its name to the early Iron Age culture - “Dyakovskaya culture”. Since 1987, the boulders on the territory of the Dyakova settlement and Dyakovskaya ravine are nature monuments. To get here, you need to turn off the 1st-Deakovo street hill fort (entrance to the park at the subway station Kashirskaya) on a cobblestone street in the direction to the Moscow River, and on your right will be ravine and hill - this is the archaeological and natural sites. If you do not know that it is monuments, it is unlikely to guess. 🙂
But let’s back to our era, especially since historians know and say so much about these times. According to legend, the Kolomenskoye village was founded by “refugees” from city Kolomna, who arrived here after the terrible devastation of the Tatar-Mongols. The first recorded mention of the village dates back to the time of Ivan Kalita, who mentioned it in his will in 1336.
In XIV century the village belonged to one of the leaders of Russian troops taking part in the Battle of Kulikovo - Prince Vladimir Serpuhovskoy. Here was scheduled to meet the troops, marching to the Kulikovo Field. According to legend, at the meeting place on the orders of Vladimir the Brave and Dmitry Donskoy, church was built in honor of George. We've been trying to figure out which of the two churches with the same name is that church, but it seems that it was not preserved, since the wooden church of St. George was moved to the park from the Arkhangelsk region, and made of stone - built almost 300 years after the Kulikov battle.
Church of the Ascension in Kolomenskoye
Kolomenskoye acquired strategic importance at the times of Moscow Grand Prince Vasily III, who paid great attention to the protection of the southern borders. In 1527 he received a report of an imminent attack of the Crimean Tatars, and apparently that's when it was decided to build a new temple and the palace here. This is how begins the story of the most famous monument in park Kolomenskoye - Church of the Ascension.
According to legend, the Church of Ascension was built in honor of the birth of the future Tsar Ivan IV the Terrible - the son of Vasily III. Completion of construction and its consecration took place in September 1532, two years after the birth of an heir. Historians say, that to build a temple of such architectural complexity in just two years was almost impossible, so there is a version that construction of the church was started before the birth of Ivan IV. We will not tell a long history of research and development work of the temple because it can lead to separate large article, and those who are interested will be able to find this information in Wikipedia. Now the Church of Ascension in Kolomenskoye is an architectural monument, under the protection of UNESCO.
Church of St. George in Kolomenskoye
Near the temple of the Ascension there is a church of St. George in Kolomenskoye, a bell tower of which was built, according to archaeologists, in the middle of the XVI century and was part of the ensemble of the Ascension Church.
According to one of the versions, the church bell tower of the Ascension of St. George has become at the end of the XVII century, when to its construction was added the “house” and a wooden refectory. In the middle of the XIX century wooden buildings were replaced by stone-made. In the temple there is another museum where you can see a rich collection of icons, old books, documents and samples of embroidery, wood carving and other crafts.
The Church of the Beheading of John the Baptist in Dyakovo
Around the same time, in the XVI century, there is another unique church in the territory of Kolomenskoye park - Temple of the Beheading of John the Baptist. The exact date of construction of the church is unknown, but most scholars agree that it was built for the coronation of Ivan IV the Terrible, in winter 1547. It is believed that in its architectural and artistic appearance is unique and stands out above all "flat" dome with lots of detail.
Kolomenskoye palace of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich
New heyday of the estate was in the early reign of the Romanov dynasty. Already under Tsar Mikhail Fedorovich “Kolomenskoye” becomes the favorite summer residence of the royal family and by autumn of 1640 this wooden palace was built. In May 1667, under Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, Kolomenskoye appears as “near Moscow Kremlin”. Famous imperial mansions to this day have not been preserved, but the memory of them remained in numerous documents, inventories, diagrams and drawings. Kolomenskoye Palace of the Romanov family was demolished in 1767 by order of Catherine II. All foreigners who have seen the palace of Alexei Mikhailovich, called it the eighth wonder of the world. Imperial mansions consisted of 27 towers, which were interconnected with galleries and special passes.
Modern palace which we can see today in the Museum-Reserve Kolomenskoye is a recreated copy of the miracle of the wooden architecture. Moreover, the new palace has appeared recently - its construction was completed in 2010. Although the idea of recreating it appeared in the 1990s, after investigating the preserved basement it was decided to cancel the new palace reconstruction at its original place, and move it to the ravine on the territory of the former village Dyakovskaya.
The current building is a unique monument - a model of Kolomenskoye wooden palace of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, made in full size by original drawings, created by an order of Catherine II. But if the old royal palace was completely made of wood, current building is a monolithic reinforced concrete structure, which was then covered with logs.
Also it was not considered an original palace orientation to the cardinal - a modern Kolomna Palace rotated about a vertical axis by 90 degrees.
Architects and historians restored not only the appearance of the royal palace in Kolomenskoye, but also its interior decoration. In the palace you can see the recreated interiors of the “Choir of the sovereign king” - the royal cabinet, bedchamber, his royal house, the duma Chamber and others.
To visit the mansions of the king and the princes, and the queen's apartments, you can with a guided tour or alone, using an audio guide. The duration of this tour just over an hour, and the price of the audio guide is 150 rubles ($4) if you got “full” entrance ticket.
Sovereign's yard in Kolomenskoe
As we have said, the layout of wooden royal palace of Alexei Mikhailovich was moved to a new location, and what is now on the place of old building? Here you can see the so-called Sovereign yard. At the site of the royal palace now grow century’s oaks, lindens and split a small square with cozy benches.
But in addition to the residence of the Romanov Tsar's, Sovereign yard includes other buildings. Entrance to the courtyard was arranged through the front gate, located directly opposite the Church of the Ascension.
The gate was built during the reign of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich in 1637, and considered as the main entrance to the royal summer residence - in that times the entry was carried out from the side of Moscow River. In 1672-1673 years right to the gates chamber of the clerks was added to the left, and the right - the colonel's Chamber. Also near of the front gate was located Hearty yard.
By the way, next to the palace gate we saw this information board. We were pleasantly surprised that in addition to the Russian language, here is a summary in English and even Braille.
Economic entrance to the royal estate of Kolomenskoye was served by Spassky Gate, they are also called as “back gate”. The first mention of them belongs to the XVII century, but the exact date of construction is unknown.
Another gate which we can see there is “Garden gate”, but they were built in the XIX century from the bricks left over from the buildings of the XVII century. In former times this gate led to the Ascension garden. The modern building was reconstructed according to the old drawings in 2007.
Sovereign courtyard was surrounded by a massive stone wall and fragments of this royal wall were survived up to these days, but mostly were restored.
In the Prince's court a large area was reserved for the royal court and aft glaciers. Now, the former farm buildings can be seen only conserved residues of the basement.
Church of the Kazan Icon of the Mother of God in Kolomenskoye
A solid architectural ensemble with the royal wooden palace was stone-made Church of the Kazan Icon of the Mother of God. But if the king's mansion can only be seen as a restored model, the palace temple stands in its place and is a real gem of the Tsar's court. The first church on this site appeared during the reign of Mikhail Fedorovich in the 1630s, and in 1651 the church was replaced by a stony, and that is what we can see today.
Gardens in Kolomenskoye Park
An integral part of the royal residence in Kolomenskoye was orchards. In six orchards were planted more than a thousand apple trees, hundreds of pears, cherries, raspberry bushes, currants, gooseberries and other fruit crops. In addition to fruit, sovereign country residence reserved famous oak grove, where the king was loved to hunt. Beautiful gardens are still present in a modern Kolomenskoye, and during the spring bloom this place especially popular among photographers.
In addition to walking through the gardens, you can visit the house of Beekeeper, which is located near the Tsar's court.
Catherine and Alexander Palace in Kolomenskoe open air Museum
After the death of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, his son, Peter I, has become go and see the royal country estate far less often, but in the memory of his father, he was very concerned about this place - he ordered to raise the royal palace on a new basement and repair it completely. Despite the fact that Peter I was rarely in Kolomenskoye, in people’s memory this relationship was very strong and as a result there was a legend that Peter was born in Kolomenskoye Palace. The Empress Catherine II knew about the legend and in 1762 has ordered to repair a wooden palace. But in preparation for repairs it was found that the building was so old that it is easier and cheaper to build new than to restore an existing one. As a result, the famous wooden palace of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich was dismantled and built a new one for Catherine near the Church of the Ascension.
But the palace did not live up to present days, even despite the fact that the Emperor Alexander I banned disassemble the structure and ordered to keep it remained as far as possible, but during the War of 1812, the building of the royal palace was completely destroyed by the French army. On the old basement of the Catherine Palace in 1825 for Alexander was built a new palace, but the Emperor has not visited it - the construction was completed in the year of death of the king. But contemporaries were not fortunate enough to see and Alexander Palace - in 1878 it was dismantled. The only surviving structure of the palace was a small pavilion built in 1825. Most likely it was used as a tea house or a home theater. Later preserved building of the Alexander Palace was used for different purposes: to 1830s it served as the infirmary of the Cadet Corps, at the beginning of the XX century there lived doctors of Kolomenskaya hospital, in the 1930s in its walls was moved sculpture studio, and in the prewar years - very famous all over Moscow restaurant “Kolomenskoye”. But the most serious damage to the building was done during the Great Patriotic War, when it housed a military unit. Now this hall holds one of the many exhibits of the museum-estate “Kolomenskoe”.
A place where previously located the royal palaces of Catherine and Alexander, today is a green lawn and the observation deck, which offers a great view of the city and the Moscow River. Here you can see the guns, which was used in the Battle of Poltava in 1709.
Museum of Wooden Architecture in Kolomenskoye Park
Museum “Kolomenskoye” was born in 1923 at the initiative of the famous Russian architect Peter Dmitrievich Baranovsky, and this scientist became its first director. From 1923 to 1933 he was found and brought here several monuments of wooden architecture of XVII-XVIII centuries. The exhibits of that museum can be seen today. In 2006-2007 the wooden buildings have been restored and transferred from the central part of the park to its outskirts, closer to the river Zhuzha.
Mokhovaya Tower of Sumy jail
Moss Tower of Sumy fortress was dismantled and brought by Baranovsky in Kolomenskoye in 1931. Part of its structure stored in the vaults for over 80 years, and when in 2003 researchers set out to assemble it back, they could not understand how to do it correctly. There has done a great preparatory work before Mokhovaya tower was reconstructed again in the territory of the Ethnographic Museum in Kolomenskoye.
Gate tower of St. Nicholas Monastery Korelskogo
East Gate Tower of St. Nicholas Monastery Korelskogo also became one of the first exhibits of the museum Kolomenskoye - it was brought to Moscow in 1932. This is the only survived monument of wooden monastic architecture of the XVII century. The date of construction of this tower is considered to be 1692, although he Nicholas Korelskiy monastery was founded in the late XIV - early XV centuries, at the confluence of the Severnaya Dvina River to the White Sea.
Tower of Brotherly jail
Fraternal fortress tower is a unique monument of wooden architecture of the XVII century. As a rule, the prison was built as a large rectangular wooden fortress with towers at it corners. From Bratsk fortress was survived only two of them. The date of their construction is considered to be 1654. During the construction of the Bratsk hydroelectric power station in 1957-1958, two towers were in the flood zone, so after careful research, it was decided to move them to a new place, so one of them was moved to Moscow in Kolomenskoye park, and the second one remained in Bratsk, as an exhibit of a local museum.
The Church of St. George in Kolomenskoye open air museum
Another monument of wooden architecture of the XVII century, which can be seen in Kolomenskoye is Church of St. George. The temple was built in 1685 on the banks of the Yorga River. During its long life, church was rebuilt several times, and as a result of restoration of the end of XIX century, almost completely changed its appearance. In Soviet times there was country club, and then a warehouse, and as a result of such “usage” - no iconostasis, or other interior decoration has been preserved. In 2003, it was decided to dismantle a dilapidated church and carry it for restoration to Kolomenskoye. Thus, in 2009-2011, the museum of wooden architecture got another architectural monument of the XVII century.
Cabin of Peter The Great in Kolomenskoye
But the most famous museum exhibit of wooden architecture in Kolomenskoye is the House of Peter The Great, which unlike the other ancient buildings, is still located close to the Prince's court. The house itself was built in 1702 at the mouth of the Severnaya Dvina River specifically for Peter I. King lived in this house not for a long time, just a month and a half, when he was in Arkhangelsk and oversaw the construction of warships and fortifications. In 1934-1936, the director of the Museum-Reserve Kolomenskoye, Petr Dmitrievich Baranovsky, brought it to Moscow to save the monument from destruction. If externally Cabin of Peter The Great is not changed, the interiors have been recreated and rebuilt in present days, and now the museum is located inside.
In front of the house is a monument to Peter The Great. This sculpture is the replica - original one was donated to the Belgian city of Antwerp.
A copy of the Dutch house of Peter The Great
But that is not the only home of the Russian Emperor in Kolomenskoye. Near the Zhuzha River we can find a copy of the house from the city of Zaandam, where Peter I spent 8 days studying shipbuilding. All details of the house were completely designed and manufactured in the Netherlands, and only then brought to Russia for assembling. It was a gift from the Armed Forces of the Netherlands to Kolomenskoye museum and one of the museums is located inside.
Watermill and Falcon yard
From modern buildings in the museum of wooden architecture we can see the water mill, the dam on the Zhuzha River, and Susan Falcon yard. Both exhibits are recreated in 2007.
Borisov stone and Polovtsian women
But let’s back to the history of the museum. In addition to the monuments of wooden architecture of the XVII century, in the years 1920-1930 to the territory of Kolomna were also brought some archaeological finds. Among them the famous Borisov stone - granite boulder of the XII century, which played the role of frontier mark of possessions belongs to Polotsk Prince Boris in the upper reaches of the Severnaya Dvina River. Before a stone was brought to Kolomenskoye, it was located in the State Historical Museum.
Polovtsian women or Polovtsi can be seen not only in Kolomenskoye - this is a fairly common archaeological monument in the CIS. For example, we have seen the same in Krasnokutskaya arboretum in Ukraine. The word "Baba" has a Turkish origin and means “father”. Stone's father in Kolomenskoye belongs to the end of XI - beginning of the XII century, the museum got it at the same time as Borisov stone, in 1920s.
In recent years, to the development of Moscow's Kolomenskoye Museum-Estate was paid special attention - restored monuments, landscaped grounds, was restored palace of Alexei Mikhailovich, which we wrote above. In 2012, in Kolomenskoye was created Valley of love, where all lovers can lay the own stone as a sign of their strong feelings.
Area of the park is becoming more and more comfortable every year for the rest, there are not only expensive restaurants, but also small tents with food, where you can buy a meal and not spend with an annual budget of Zimbabwe. Although it is fair to say that the prices are about the same as in the Moscow zoo, well, maybe a little lower.
In addition to visiting museums and churches in Kolomenskoye, in the summer season you can take a short cruise on Moscow River and that this is probably one of the most interesting water routes along the Moscow River.
We were very surprised, but Muscovites swim in the Moscow River, and it is seems to be widespread and not isolated cases. If you are not afraid of skin diseases and other muck, you can take a risk and swim, and if you still squeamish, you can just soak up the sun. 🙂
In just a few hours of walking around the park Kolomenskoye we were not able to visit all the museums in the park - its territory is so vast that it even the whole day is not enough. Aside from our lens remained famous vote ravine and boulders, the Ethnographic Museum, Stable yard and numerous natural monuments. Kolomenskoye Park is a great place to spend a weekend with the whole family and considered to be as one of the best parks in Moscow.